Category Archives: Seven Years’ War

Chronology of Events for May 1756

May 1, 1756: The First Treaty of Versailles is signed. France and Austria form a military alliance.

May 2, 1756: Admiral Byng’s squadron, after having encountered much bad weather, arrived at Gibraltar, where Byng learnt the strength of the French squadron; and that it had already escorted a large body of troops to Minorca, and obtained possession of the whole island, with the exception of Fort St. Philip.

May 8, 1756: Sir Edward Hawke, with part of his squadron, arrived at Spithead.

May 8, 1756: On the 8th of May the British squadron sailed from Gibraltar and on the 16th reached Majorca, where intelligence was received, fully confirming that which had been obtained at Gibraltar.

May 11, 1756: A message was sent by his Majesty to both Houses of Parliament, signifying, “That his Majesty being desirous to be prepared against all attempts and designs whatsoever that may be formed by his enemies, in the present critical juncture, and considering that sudden emergencies may arise, which may be of the utmost importance, and be attended with the most pernicious consequences, if proper means should not be immediately applied to prevent or defeat them; his Majesty hoped, that he should be enabled by his parliament, to concert and take such measures, as should be necessary to disappoint or defeat any enterprises or designs of his enemies, and as the exigency of affairs may require.” For which message both Houses voted l loyal and dutiful address to his Majesty.

May 11, 1756: The new commander of New France, Marquis Louis Joseph de Montcalm, arrives in North America along with much needed reinforcements.

May 15, 1756: The Queenborough man of war with forty-five sail of transports will the Hessian troops on board, consisting о 5500 foot, and 800 horse, arrived at Southampton.

May 16, 1756: “Amsterdam, May 16. We have advice, that 16 men of war belonging to Sweden and Denmark, and some frigates, have joined near Elseneur, and that the admirals of the two nations have received orders from their respective courts to draw lots, when they come to a certain latitude, which shall command in chief the combined fleet. It is reported, that these ships are all double manned. Their destination is variously talked of.  Some pretend that they are designed to hinder the transporting of any Russian troops to Great-Britain. Others day, that this squadron is only intended to protect the navigation of the two crowns.”

May 17, 1756: His Majesty in council was pleased to order, that a commission should be prepared, to authorize and empower the lords of the Admiralty to grant letters of marque or commission to privateers.

May 17, 1756: Early in the morning, the 50-gun ship Colchester, and 20-gun ship Lyme, Captains Lucius O’Brien and Edward Vernon, being off the Isle of Oleron, chased two sail. At 5h. P.M., the Colchester arrived up with the sternmost, which was the 50-gun ship Aquilon, and engaged her very closely; while the Lyme brought to action her consort, the 32-gun frigate Fidelle. After an action of six hours’ duration, the French ships made off, leaving the Colchester and Lyme much damaged in hull and rigging, with the loss of a great many men.

May 18, 1756: War was declared against the French king, and notice was given at the post office, that no mail would go between these kingdoms and France.

May 19, 1756: [Off Minorca] At daybreak, having had a fine wind during the preceding night, the fleet comprising 15 ships of the line and 3 sloops arrived in sight of Minorca, and the admiral dispatched the Phoenix to reconnoiter Port Mahon, and ascertain the possibility of throwing supplies into Fort St. Philip, as also with a letter to General Blakeney, the commandant of the garrison. In the meanwhile the squadron made every effort to get inshore, but the appearance of the French fleet quickly changed the nature of the British admiral’s movements. His first object was to strengthen his weakest-manned ships from the crews of the smaller vessels, and he converted the Phoenix into a fire-ship.  Towards night, the French squadron of Admiral de la Galissonière had neared the British squadron within a few miles, when they tacked, to obtain the weather gage, but Byng possessing at that time this advantage, tacked also. The two fleets therefore continued working to windward all night, with light variable airs of wind, and at daybreak on the 20th, they were not visible to each other.

May 20, 1756: [Off Minorca] The Defiance, a little after daybreak, captured a tartan containing a reinforcement of men from Minorca for the French fleet, and shortly afterwards the latter was discovered to leeward, but at so great a distance that it was 2 P.M. before Byng considered it necessary to form his order of attack. The signal was then made for the British squadron in two lines to bear away two points, and engage the enemy. Rear-Admiral West, whose division was leading, misinterpreting the signal, bore up seven points; and at 2:45 P.M. the Defiance, in the most spirited manner, engaged the van ship of the enemy. The other ships of Rear-Admiral West’s division engaged with equal gallantry, and the action soon became general with the British van, and the French van and centre. The French ships were under topsails only, with their main-topsails to the mast. Byng, with his division, shortly afterwards bore up to the support of his rear-admiral; but the Intrepid, the last ship of the leading division, had not been long in action ere her foretopmast was shot away, and, in a manner wholly unaccountable, threw the centre division astern of her into confusion. The loss of a foretopmast to a ship sailing with the wind on her quarter ought not to have been attended with any material consequences, and the only effect it would have had upon experienced seamen would have been, that the ships astern would have passed the disabled ship to leeward, and have continued to close the enemy. It is impossible to justify the proceedings of Admiral Byng, and the ships of his division. The Intrepid rounded to, and threw all a-back, but not before she was in such a position as to engage the ship opposed to her in the line with effect. The Revenge, the ship next astern, luffed up, in order to pass the Intrepid to windward, but did not in fact pass her at all, as she remained upon the Intrepid’s weather quarter. The Princess Louisa and Trident were also brought to by the same cause, as well as the Ramillies, bearing the admiral’s flag. The latter ship did not get into action at all, although her crew wasted much ammunition by firing when out of gun-shot;  neither did the Revenge, Trident, Culloden, or Kingston. The division of Rear-Admiral West, which led, suffered most; and had the French not filled, and made sail after about three hours’ cannonading, his ships must inevitably have fallen into their hands. The four 74-gun ships of the French fleet mounted 42-pounders on the lower deck, and the 64-gun ships, 36-pounders. The conduct of M. De Galissioniere, therefore, was surprising; for, with such ships, he ought to have captured every ship of the British fleet. But this does not exonerate the British admiral, whose indecision is softened only by the severity of the penalty he paid. Byng quitted Minorca and returned to Gibraltar, where he was soon afterwards superseded by Sir Edward Hawke.
May 20, 1756: Nineteen transports, having on board 9000 Hanoverians, arrived at Chatham.

May 25, 1756: The States General came to a resolution, to observe exact neutrality in respect to the war in America, between Great-Britain and France.

May 27, 1756: “A very bold action was performed on the 27th of last month by capt. Cockburne, in the Hunter-cutter, a little thing with only forty men, and a few swivels. He kept loitering about Brest all day, and at night went in, in his boat, with only five men; when, after having rowed round all the men of war, and taken a particular account of them, he cut the cables of a French snow, boarded her, and carried her away from among the men of war. She was loaded with wine, which hath been distributed to all the fleet. We have got eighteen hogsheads ; and yesterday, after having taken every thing out of her, sunk her.”

May 29, 1756: Commodore Spry took a French dogger with provisions and stores of all kinds for the garrison of Louisbourg.

May 31, 1756: “Extract of a Letter from Philadelphia, dated May 31. ‘Pursuant to agreement some months ago, the four governments of New-England, in conjunction with New-York, (which last furnished 1,300) have new assembled 8,000 men for the attack of Crown-Point, at Albany, 150 miles N. of New-York, and about 130 from Crown-Point, under general Winslow; and as men continually join them, there will soon be 9,000. We are well assured by fishermen that a French fleet with soldiers on hoard crossed the banks of Newfoundland 20 days ago, bound for Canada; hence, as these troops may get to Crown-Point, and reinforce the forts before our army will go up thither, you may judge the bad consequences of this delay.  The 44th, 48th, 50th, and 51st regiments of Great-Britain, with three independent companies, and the Jersey Provincials, are destined for the campaign on the great lake Ontario, and mostly marched for Oswego, thence to be carried over in 200 whale boats, which are now at the lake, and were built last winter at Schenectady on Mohawks river, and are Jong, round, and light, for the batteaus being flat-bottomed and small would not answer the navigation of the lake, were the waves are often very high: They are to attack Fort Frontenac and the other French forts on the lake. Upwards of 2000 batteau men are employed to navigate the batteaus, each a ton burthen, loaded with provisions and stores from Albany, up the Mohawks river, then through Oncyda lake and river, down to Oswego. There are 300 sailors hired and gone up from New-York to Oswego, to navigate the four armed ships on the lake, built there last year for the king’s service, which are about 150 tons each, and two others are now building, smiths, carpenters, and other artificers having arrived there some weeks ago. The troops already mentioned for this service are about 3600 men, besides officers.  In this province, 1500 men are new raised, and yet we act only on the defensive, owing to party disputes and our own inexperience 400 of them are going to build a good fort at Shamakin, up the Susquehanna in the Allegheny mountains, a noted pass about 150 miles N. W. of this city. Besides the 60,000l. currency, given this this province last winter, 40,000l. more is just voted by a land-tax on lands and estates, etc. Maryland likewise has voted 40,000l. and Virginia 45,000l.”

Chronology of Events for March 1756

March, 1756: “Thirty French prizes have been carried into Jamaica by his majesty’s ships upon that station. Many have also been carried into Barbados by the ships of commodore Frankland’s squadron.”

March, 1756: “Boston in New-England has voted 3000 men, and the province of New-York 1000, to be raised for the expedition against Crown-point. Governor Morris has drawn a line, upwards of 400 miles in length, on the back of Philadelphia, and fortified it is such a manner as to secure the inhabitants from the attempts of the enemy on that side.”

March, 1756: “About the beginning of last month a squadron of French men of war, with a number of transports, under the command of M. Perrier de Salvert sailed from Brest, having a number of troops on board, and great quantities of arms and ammunition; but whither bound is as yet a secretAll we know is that two English merchant ships have been taken by them in their passage, one of which was sent into Morlaix in France, and the other, which was taken 100 leagues to the westward of Cape Finisterre, has been sent into Cadiz in Spain.  Ever since the middle of February we have had accounts, by every mail from France, of great preparations making at Toulon, for some naval expedition, in which a strong squadron, and a great number of troops, were to be employed, and it was generally said to be designed against the island of Minorca, which was looked on as a French gasconade, as no squadron was sent from England for preventing it. But by the last mails we have an account that this squadron, with a body of 17 or 18,000 land forces, and all materials necessary for a siege, actually sailed the 9th inst, but were obliged by contrary winds to come to an anchor off the islands of Hieres, from whence they sailed again the nth, and were out of sight when the last letters came from thence. This makes some people apprehend that important island to be in danger, at our squadron tinder admiral Byng did not sail from Plymouth till the 6th inst, so that the French troops may be landed, and the fort invested several days before he can reach the island.”

March 1, 1756: “His royal highness the duke of Cumberland arrived at Chatham, and examined the fortifications carrying on at that place: At five in the afternoon he entered Canterbury, and reviewed the three regiments quartered there. The next day, between one and two in the afternoon, he reviewed lord Robert Bertie’s regiment at Dover-castle, and there lodged. The next day he visited Folkstone, Hythe, Dymchurch, New Romney, Lydd, and Rye. On Sunday night, the 7th, he returned from his tour to St. James’s.”

March 3, 1756: Orders were sent to the commissioners of the customs, to lay an embargo on all the shipping in the ports of England and Ireland, and at night there was the hottest press for seamen, on the river Thames, that has been known for many years. An embargo was also laid on the ships in the ports of Scotland. [This embargo was, in part, taken off again before the 20th.]

March 11, 1756: The Chev. d’Aubigny in the Prudent of 74 guns, together with the frigates Atalanta M. de Chaffault, and Zephyr M. le Touche de Treville, took the Warwick of 60 Guns Captain Shouldham, near Martinico.

March 11, 1756: Sir Edward Hawke with ten ships of the line, and under his convoy three East Indiamen sails from St. Helens westward.

March 13, 1756: “The preceding week, there was a very smart press for seamen and land men, in all the ports of the kingdom, as well as this city and suburbs, as also for soldiers; to which purpose the peace officers searched all the publick houses, and secured every idle person that could give no good account of themselves ; the roads into Essex, Surrey, Hertfordshire, &c. were guarded by marines, who took all those that were thought capable of serving his majesty either by land or sea. Orders were likewise dispatched from the privy council to the lord’s lieutenants of the several counties, to enjoin the justices and deputy lieutenants to exert themselves in causing all the straggling seamen to be taken up, for his majesty’s service. Many noblemen gave bounties in their respective counties, to those who enlisted in the new regiments, over and above the usual entrance money; by which those corps were speedily completed.”

March 23, 1756: “The King sent a message to the two Houses of Parliament, wherein his Majesty informed them, that he had received repeated advices, that a design had been formed by the French court to invade Great Britain or Ireland; and that the great preparations of land forces, ships, artillery, and warlike stores, now making in the ports of France, left little room to doubt of the reality of such a design: that his Majesty had therefore judged it necessary to acquaint them with intelligence of such high importance to the safety of these nations, and to inform them, that he had taken proper measures for putting his kingdom in a posture of defence against so unjust and desperate an enterprise, projected in revenge for those just and necessary measures which had been taken for maintaining his rights and possessions in North America; and that, in order further to strengthen himself, his Majesty had made a requisition of a body of Hessian troops to be forthwith brought over hither and that, trusting in the Divine protection, and in the good affection, zeal, and fidelity of his people, which he had so often experienced, his Majesty was determined to exert all the force God had put into his hands, to repel so daring an attempt; and doubted not of their support and concurrence.”

March 27, 1756: Attack on Fort Bull, North America. This English fort at the “Oneida carry” in New York is taken by storm by a 362-man body of French troops commanded by Lt. Chaussegros De Lery.  The fort, after it was taken, blew up by accident, with its magazine of Powder, (of 40,000 pound weight) bombs, bullets, grenades, other utensils of war, and a considerable quantity of provision.  This threatens the supply line to Fort Oswego on the shore of Lake Ontario.

Chronology of Events for February 1756

February, 1756: “From the Hague we are cold, that the deputies of the admiralties have resolved to fit out 40 ships of war against the spring, besides the 11 that are now at sea, in order to protect not only their Mediterranean trade against the Algerines, but also that of the ocean, in case there should be occasion; and that a placard has been lately published in the province of Holland, for raising the 100th and 200th penny, at two separate patients, half on the 15th of May, and the residue on the 1st of July.”

February, 1756: “The house of commons of Ireland have waited upon the lord lieutenant with an address to the king, to assure his majesty of the just sense of that house of his majesty’s constant care and protection of that kingdom, and of their determined resolution to do everything in their power for the support of the dignity and honour of his crown, and the defence of his majesty’s dominions at this time threatened with invasion: And to pray that he would be graciously pleased to increase the number of forces in that kingdom to 12,000 men complete.”

February: A bill is submitted to Parliament for the raising a regiment of four battalions for service in North America to be partly officered by foreign Protestants and under the overall command of a British officer.  The bill passes in March and the 62d or Royal American Regiment is raised.

February 3, 1756: “Tuesday, Feb. 3. At a council held at St. James’s it was resolved to issue a proclamation (which was accordingly published in the London Gazette) setting forth, that the king being resolved, by the assistance and blessing of God, not to be wanting in his care for the defence of this kingdom, in case of any hostile attempt to land upon the coast thereof, hath thought fit strictly to charge and command all officers and ministers, civil and military, within their respective counties, &c. that they cause the coasts to be carefully watched, and, upon the first appearance of any such hostile attempt, immediately cause all horses, oxen and came, which may be fit for draught of burthen, and not actually employed in his majesty’s service, or in the defence of the country, and also (so far as may he practicable) all other cattle and provisions, to be driven and removed 20 miles at least from the place where such attempt shall be made, and to secure the same, so that they may not fall into the hands or power of those who shall make such attempt. Wherein nevertheless it is his royal will and pleasure that the respective owners thereof may suffer as little damage loss or inconvenience as may be consistent with the publick safety.”

February 3, 1756: On the third instant the French king’s orders were published at Dunkirk, for all British subjects to leave his dominions before the first of next month, except such as may obtain his permission to remain. Another edict was published at the same time, inviting his most Christian majesty’s subjects to set out privateers, promising a premium of 40 livres for every gun, and as much for every man they take on board the enemy’s ships; with a further promise, that in case peace should be concluded soon, the king will purchase the said privateers at their prime cost.

February 4, 1756: “Extracts of a Letter from Virginia, Feb. 4. ‘We are marching 200 white men and 100 Cherokees from a fort on the Newriver against the Shawnees, who live at a place that runs into the Ohio. Shirley and Johnson are to proceed in the spring against Crown-point and Niagara; and governor Sharp of Maryland is to proceed with 1000 men from Philadelphia, 1000 from his own government, Washington’s regiment of 1000 from Virginia, and 1000 Cherokee Indians against fort Dushen.’  By the last Gazette from Philadelphia there is an account of 78 people being killed at a place called Ninisinks, and 43 plantations burnt by the Delawar Indians, who live in the New York government. The government of Philadelphia has offered a reward of 350 dollars for each of the officers heads.”

February 13, 1756. “Vice-admiral Watson arrived the 11th of this month in Geriah harbour, on the coast of Malabar in the East Indies, with the Kent, Cumberland, Tiger, Salisbury, Bridgewater, and King’s Fisher stoop; and the following ships belonging to the Company, viz. the Protector of 40 guns, the Revenge, Bombay, Grab, and Guardian frigates, the Drake, Warren, Triumph, and Viper bomb-ketches where he was informed Tulagee Angria was treating with the Mahrattas to surrender the place to them. In consequence of this intelligence, the Vice-admiral sent him a summons the next morning to surrender the town and fort to him; but receiving no answer in the time he proposed, and finding the Mahrattas (from whom he had received no assistance) were trifling with him, he weighed in the afternoon, and stood into the harbour in two divisions, in the order as he directed. The enemy fired at the ships as they passed their batteries; but as soon as they were got by them, and were properly placed, they began such a fire as soon silenced their batteries, and likewise the fire from the grabs. Soon after four o’clock a shell was thrown into the Restoration, an armed ship which Angria some time before look from the East which set her on fire and after his whole fleet shared the same fate in were all entirely destroyed. In the night the Vice-admiral landed all his troops, suspecting the enemy would endeavor to let in the Mahrattas, which supposition was confirmed by a deserter, who informed Mr. Watson that Angria (who himself was not in the fort) had sent orders to his brother-in-law, who commanded the garrison, on no account to suffer the English to come in.   On the 13th in the after several messages had passed for so purpose, the Vice-admiral renewed the attack and in about twenty minutes they flung out a flag of truce, but the Admiral insisted that his troops should be let in and their colours hauled down, and they not complying with his demand, he repeated his attack with great vigor, and the enemy very soon called out for mercy, which out troops were near enough to hear distinctly. Captains Forbes and Buchanan, with sixty men, marched into the fort that night, and the next morning the rest of our forces. The Vice-admiral reported that all his officers and men behaved with great valour; that our loss was inconsiderable, as well as with respect to men as to damage done to the ships.  An officer, with sixty men, marched into the fort that night, and the next morning all our forces. The Vice-admiral reported that all his officers and men behaved with great valour; that our loss was very inconsiderable, as well with respect to men as to damage done to the ships, insomuch that he could have been able to have proceeded to sea again in twenty-four hours, had there been a necessity for so doing. The Vice-admiral left about 300 of the a company’s European troops in the garrison and as many Sepoys, and three or four of the companies armed vessels in the harbour, for the defence of the place.”

February 16, 1756: The Convention of Westminster is signed. England and Prussia form a military alliance.

Original Officers of the 50 Companies of Marines raised in March 1755, by Company

Company Officer Commission Location
Lt. Col. James  Patterson March 23, 1755 Portsmouth
Lt. Col. Theodore  Dury March 24, 1755 Plymouth
Lt. Col. Charles Gordon March 25, 1755 Chatham
Major Richard Bendyshe March 23, 1755 Portsmouth
Major Charles Leighton March 24, 1755 Plymouth
Major James  Burleigh March 25, 1755 Chatham
1 Captain Hector Boisrond February 4, 1755 Portsmouth
1 1st Lieut. Daniel Campbell February 4, 1755 Portsmouth
1 2nd Lieut. Sir William Wescombe December 16, 1754 Portsmouth
1 2nd Lieut. John Barbor February 4, 1755 Portsmouth
2 Captain Gabriel Sediere February 5, 1755 Plymouth
2 1st Lieut. Dudley Crofts February 5, 1755 Plymouth
2 2nd Lieut. Abraham Hilton December 17, 1754 Plymouth
2 2nd Lieut. Robert Cotton February 5, 1755 Plymouth
3 Captain John McKenzie February 6, 1755 Chatham
3 1st Lieut. George Langley February 6, 1755 Chatham
3 2nd Lieut. Styles Ravenscroft December 18, 1754 Chatham
3 2nd Lieut. George Norbury February 6, 1755 Chatham
4 Captain Charles Repington February 7, 1755 Portsmouth
4 1st Lieut. James Hill February 7, 1755 Portsmouth
4 2nd Lieut. Francis Allesieu December 19, 1754 Portsmouth
4 2nd Lieut. John Hughes February 7, 1755 Portsmouth
5 Captain Alexander Cumming February 8, 1755 Plymouth
5 1st Lieut. Alexander Cathcart February 8, 1755 Plymouth
5 2nd Lieut. John Forster December 20, 1754 Plymouth
5 2nd Lieut. Robert Johnston February 8, 1755 Plymouth
6 Captain Sir Robert Abercrombie, Bt. February 9, 1755 Chatham
6 1st Lieut. Francis Hay February 9, 1755 Chatham
6 2nd Lieut. John Tupper December 21, 1754 Chatham
6 2nd Lieut. William Deane February 9, 1755 Chatham
7 Captain Alexander Douglas February 10, 1755 Portsmouth
7 1st Lieut. Donald McDonald February 10, 1755 Portsmouth
7 2nd Lieut. Stephen Nevinson December 22, 1754 Portsmouth
7 2nd Lieut. William Gosling February 10, 1755 Portsmouth
8 Captain Edward Rycaut February 11, 1755 Plymouth
8 1st Lieut. John Suttie February 11, 1755 Plymouth
8 2nd Lieut. George Maltby December 23, 1754 Plymouth
8 2nd Lieut. Hon. Francis J. Leslie February 11, 1755 Plymouth
9 Captain John Wright February 12, 1755 Chatham
9 1st Lieut. Edward Howarth February 12, 1755 Chatham
9 2nd Lieut. Erskine McKenzie December 24, 1754 Chatham
9 2nd Lieut. Mordecai Abbot February 12, 1755 Chatham
10 Captain Thomas Dawes February 13, 1755 Portsmouth
10 1st Lieut. Robert Douglas February 13, 1755 Portsmouth
10 2nd Lieut. Charles Templeman December 25, 1754 Portsmouth
10 2nd Lieut. John Ridsdale February 13, 1755 Portsmouth
11 Captain John Tufton Mason February 14, 1755 Plymouth
11 1st Lieut. John Phillips February 14, 1755 Plymouth
11 2nd Lieut. Richard Mompesson December 26, 1754 Plymouth
11 2nd Lieut. Edward Hornby February 14, 1755 Plymouth
12 Captain Thomas Sheldon February 15, 1755 Chatham
12 1st Lieut. John Brown February 15, 1755 Chatham
12 2nd Lieut. Griffith Williams December 27, 1754 Chatham
12 2nd Lieut. John Sullivan February 15, 1755 Chatham
13 Captain Thomas Moore February 16, 1755 Portsmouth
13 1st Lieut. Colin Campbell February 16, 1755 Portsmouth
13 2nd Lieut. John Nugent December 28, 1754 Portsmouth
13 2nd Lieut. Charles Champion February 16, 1755 Portsmouth
14 Captain John Gordon February 17, 1755 Plymouth
14 1st Lieut. Robert Ewer February 17, 1755 Plymouth
14 2nd Lieut. Robert McKay December 29, 1754 Plymouth
14 2nd Lieut. John Knox February 17, 1755 Plymouth
15 Captain Richard Barker February 18, 1755 Chatham
15 1st Lieut. Archibald Campbell February 18, 1755 Chatham
15 2nd Lieut. Hugh Arnott December 30, 1754 Chatham
15 2nd Lieut. Joseph Gulston February 18, 1755 Chatham
16 Captain James Dundas February 19, 1755 Portsmouth
16 1st Lieut. George Ord February 19, 1755 Portsmouth
16 2nd Lieut. William Sadler December 31, 1754 Portsmouth
16 2nd Lieut. George Innes February 19, 1755 Portsmouth
17 Captain George Maxwell February 20, 1755 Plymouth
17 1st Lieut. Lancelot Willan February 20, 1755 Plymouth
17 2nd Lieut. Stawel Chudleigh January 1, 1755 Plymouth
17 2nd Lieut. Harrie Innes February 20, 1755 Plymouth
18 Captain James Robertson February 21, 1755 Chatham
18 1st Lieut. William Frazer February 21, 1755 Chatham
18 2nd Lieut. John McFie January 2, 1755 Chatham
18 2nd Lieut. Leslie Brown February 21, 1755 Chatham
19 Captain John Campbell February 22, 1755 Portsmouth
19 1st Lieut. James Short February 22, 1755 Portsmouth
19 2nd Lieut. John Purver January 3, 1755 Portsmouth
19 2nd Lieut. Alexander Crawford February 22, 1755 Portsmouth
20 Captain Claud Hamilton February 23, 1755 Plymouth
20 1st Lieut. George Bossugue February 23, 1755 Plymouth
20 2nd Lieut. Nicholas Dunbar January 4, 1755 Plymouth
20 2nd Lieut. Robert Kennedy February 23, 1755 Plymouth
21 Captain John Bell February 24, 1755 Chatham
21 1st Lieut. James Mercer February 24, 1755 Chatham
21 2nd Lieut. Charles McKay January 5, 1755 Chatham
21 2nd Lieut. Robert Home February 24, 1755 Chatham
22 Captain John Dennis February 25, 1755 Portsmouth
22 1st Lieut. John Frazer February 25, 1755 Portsmouth
22 2nd Lieut. Turbeville Wainwright January 6, 1755 Portsmouth
22 2nd Lieut. Samuel Smith February 25, 1755 Portsmouth
23 Captain Thomas Dalton February 26, 1755 Plymouth
23 1st Lieut. William Aytoun Douglas February 26, 1755 Plymouth
23 2nd Lieut. Thomas Grant January 7, 1755 Plymouth
23 2nd Lieut. Alexander Ross February 26, 1755 Plymouth
24 Captain Thomas Whitwick February 27, 1755 Chatham
24 1st Lieut. Dennis Bond February 27, 1755 Chatham
24 2nd Lieut. Joseph Smith January 8, 1755 Chatham
24 2nd Lieut. Andrew Elliot February 27, 1755 Chatham
25 Captain James Hamilton February 28, 1755 Portsmouth
25 1st Lieut. Thomas Backhouse February 28, 1755 Portsmouth
25 2nd Lieut. Robert Walsh January 9, 1755 Portsmouth
25 2nd Lieut. Charles Fraser February 28, 1755 Portsmouth
26 Captain Roger Basket March 1, 1755 Plymouth
26 1st Lieut. Gerrard Dennet March 1, 1755 Plymouth
26 2nd Lieut. Edward Farmar January 10, 1755 Plymouth
26 2nd Lieut. John Campbell March 1, 1755 Plymouth
27 Captain Henry Graeme March 2, 1755 Chatham
27 1st Lieut. Thomas Troy March 2, 1755 Chatham
27 2nd Lieut. John Shuter January 11, 1755 Chatham
27 2nd Lieut. Archibald Campbell March 2, 1755 Chatham
28 Captain John Beaghan March 3, 1755 Portsmouth
28 1st Lieut. Edward Kyffin March 3, 1755 Portsmouth
28 2nd Lieut. John Chalmers January 12, 1755 Portsmouth
28 2nd Lieut. Alexander Campbell March 3, 1755 Portsmouth
29 Captain Samuel Prosser March 4, 1755 Plymouth
29 1st Lieut. George Gulston March 4, 1755 Plymouth
29 2nd Lieut. Benjamin Leaper January 13, 1755 Plymouth
29 2nd Lieut. Francis Dunne March 4, 1755 Plymouth
30 Captain Patrick McDowal March 5, 1755 Chatham
30 1st Lieut. Richard Dennison March 5, 1755 Chatham
30 2nd Lieut. Joshua Sabine January 14, 1755 Chatham
30 2nd Lieut. Henry Fletcher March 5, 1755 Chatham
31 Captain Alexander Irons March 6, 1755 Portsmouth
31 1st Lieut. William Thompson March 6, 1755 Portsmouth
31 2nd Lieut. Peter Livingston January 15, 1755 Portsmouth
31 2nd Lieut. William Fordyce March 6, 1755 Portsmouth
32 Captain Charles Webb March 7, 1755 Plymouth
32 1st Lieut. John Elliot March 7, 1755 Plymouth
32 2nd Lieut. Maurice Wemys January 16, 1755 Plymouth
32 2nd Lieut. James St. Clair March 7, 1755 Plymouth
33 Captain William Stacey March 8, 1755 Chatham
33 1st Lieut. John Pitcairn March 8, 1755 Chatham
33 2nd Lieut. George Waide January 17, 1755 Chatham
33 2nd Lieut. William Johnston March 8, 1755 Chatham
34 Captain Richard Brough March 9, 1755 Portsmouth
34 1st Lieut. James Perkins March 9, 1755 Portsmouth
34 2nd Lieut. Bowater John March 26, 1755 Portsmouth
34 2nd Lieut. George Preston March 9, 1755 Portsmouth
35 Captain Henry Smith March 10, 1755 Plymouth
35 1st Lieut. William Denis March 10, 1755 Plymouth
35 2nd Lieut. Samuel Barnes January 19, 1755 Plymouth
35 2nd Lieut. George Logan March 10, 1755 Plymouth
36 Captain John Johnston March 11, 1755 Plymouth
36 1st Lieut. Ralph Teesdale March 11, 1755 Chatham
36 2nd Lieut. William Biggs January 20, 1755 Plymouth
36 2nd Lieut. William Hardinge March 11, 1755 Plymouth
37 Captain Leathes Johnston March 12, 1755 Portsmouth
37 1st Lieut. Pierce Dent March 12, 1755 Portsmouth
37 2nd Lieut. William Rotheram January 21, 1755 Portsmouth
37 2nd Lieut. Robert Rochhead March 12, 1755 Portsmouth
38 Captain Christopher Gauntlet March 13, 1755 Plymouth
38 1st Lieut. Robert Shirley March 13, 1755 Plymouth
38 2nd Lieut. Thomas Groves January 22, 1755 Plymouth
38 2nd Lieut. William Forster March 13, 1755 Plymouth
39 Captain Arthur Tooker Collins March 14, 1755 Portsmouth
39 1st Lieut. Daniel Campbell March 14, 1755 Portsmouth
39 2nd Lieut. Thornhill Heathcote January 23, 1755 Portsmouth
39 2nd Lieut. Benjamin Dobbs March 14, 1755 Portsmouth
40 Captain Walter Carruthers March 15, 1755 Plymouth
40 1st Lieut. John Blinkthorne March 15, 1755 Plymouth
40 2nd Lieut. Robert Chappell January 24, 1755 Plymouth
40 2nd Lieut. John Barclay March 15, 1755 Plymouth
41 Captain John Vere March 16, 1755 Portsmouth
41 1st Lieut. William Lutman March 16, 1755 Portsmouth
41 2nd Lieut. William Nethersole January 25, 1755 Portsmouth
41 2nd Lieut. John McKay March 16, 1755 Portsmouth
42 Captain William Picton March 17, 1755 Plymouth
42 1st Lieut. Thomas Wight March 17, 1755 Plymouth
42 2nd Lieut. Hon. Francis Napier January 26, 1755 Plymouth
42 2nd Lieut. Duncan Monro March 17, 1755 Plymouth
43 Captain Richard Shuckburgh March 18, 1755 Portsmouth
43 1st Lieut. William Rowley March 18, 1755 Portsmouth
43 2nd Lieut. Laurence Mercer January 27, 1755 Portsmouth
43 2nd Lieut. John Alexander March 18, 1755 Portsmouth
44 Captain Richard Hawkins March 19, 1755 Plymouth
44 1st Lieut. Thomas Stamper March 19, 1755 Plymouth
44 2nd Lieut. William Douglas January 28, 1755 Plymouth
44 2nd Lieut. John Graham March 19, 1755 Plymouth
45 Captain George Maddison March 20, 1755 Portsmouth
45 1st Lieut. Thomas Airey March 20, 1755 Portsmouth
45 2nd Lieut. Peter Campbell January 29, 1755 Portsmouth
45 2nd Lieut. Hugh Lloyd March 20, 1755 Portsmouth
46 Captain Charles Grey March 21, 1755 Plymouth
46 1st Lieut. Thomas Smith March 21, 1755 Plymouth
46 2nd Lieut. Arthur Bridger January 30, 1755 Plymouth
46 2nd Lieut. Colin Graham March 21, 1755 Plymouth
47 Captain Robert Burdet March 22, 1755 Portsmouth
47 1st Lieut. John Barnwell Waller March 22, 1755 Portsmouth
47 2nd Lieut. William Souter January 31, 1755 Portsmouth
47 2nd Lieut. Patrick Stuart March 22, 1755 Portsmouth
48 Captain John Yeo March 23, 1755 Plymouth
48 1st Lieut. Charles Fletcher March 23, 1755 Plymouth
48 2nd Lieut. Mathew Shaftoe February 1, 1755 Plymouth
48 2nd Lieut. Abraham Bosomworth March 23, 1755 Plymouth
49 Captain Robert Parkhurst March 24, 1755 Portsmouth
49 1st Lieut. Benjamin Edwards March 24, 1755 Portsmouth
49 2nd Lieut. William Lewis February 2, 1755 Portsmouth
49 2nd Lieut. Adam Lodge March 24, 1755 Portsmouth
50 Captain Hon. Alexander Leslie March 25, 1755 Portsmouth
50 1st Lieut. Enoch Markham March 25, 1755 Portsmouth
50 2nd Lieut. Charles Hughes February 3, 1755 Portsmouth
50 2nd Lieut. John Armstrong March 25, 1755 Portsmouth

Updates to the 50th & 51st Foot

Below is a list of officers who should have been included on the 1755 Army List but appeared on the 1756 List.

50th Foot:

Captains:

Staates Long Morris                        12 Feb. 1755 (ex. from King’s ind. coy. (New-York) (c.l.))

 

Lieutenants:

Thomas Moncrief[1]     (20/9/54) 17 Dec. 1754 (ex. from 51st F.)

Estes Hatch                                         19 Dec. 1754 (ex. from h-p Shirley’s F.)

Robert McKinen                               24 Dec. 1754 (ex. from h-p Pepperell’s F.; (McKinnon, Mackenin))

Nathaniel Brinley                             29 Dec. 1754

Jeremiah Tinker                                 10 Apr. 1755

 

Ensigns:

Thomas Fortye                                  17 Dec. 1754

Joseph Goldthwaite                         20 Dec. 1754

John Billings                                        21 Dec. 1754

Arent Schuyler de Peister  (Deposter)              30 Apr. 1755

 

51st Foot:

Captains:

William Williams[4]                          24 Dec. 1754

James Delancey                                     25 Dec. 1754

 

Lieutenants:

David Haldane         (30/9/54) 31 Oct. 1754

Daniel Tilton                            1 Jan. 1755

Nathaniel Williams                 2 Jan. 1755

(–) Rose                                                 (–)

 

Ensigns:

Benjamin White                                19 Dec. 1754 (ex. from h-p Pepperell’s F.)

Theophilus Dame                             02 Jan. 1755

Henry Isaac Wondall (Wendel)     18 Feb. 1755

Courtland Schuyler                          24 Apr. 1755

 

Chronology of Events for December 1755

December 20, 1755: “A proclamation was issued for prolonging the term, during which gunpowder shall not be exported, for six months.  Also another proclamation for continuing the bounty to seamen and land men till the first of February.”

December 27, 1755: “Brest, Dec. 27. By a late survey of the naval stores, and the representations of the several boards of works throughout the kingdom, it is found that a sufficient quantity of materials are already imported and deposited in his majesty’s magazines, for the equipment of 150 sail of the line. Orders have since been sent hither for the construction of ten new ships, to Rochefort for eight, and to Toulon for the construction of five, all upwards of 50 guns.”

On this date in 1755, General Braddock was defeated by French and Indian Forces in what is now Western Pennsylvania.

There is a chapter in my book about the Battle of the Monongahela.  It includes extracts from the Scots Magazine, a contemporary periodical:

“According to the advices from Virginia, General Braddock, with 2000 troops including two regiments of Foot, independent companies from South Carolina and New-York, and provincial troops from Maryland and Virginia, had by the 12th of June passed the Alleghany mountains, and was within five days march of Fort du Quesne, built by the French last year on the Monongahela River, which runs into the Ohio.  He was long detained at Will’s Creek, and greatly distressed by the want of forage, provisions, wagons, and horses.  The landing of the troops in Virginia, is said to have been a most wretched error, as none of the necessaries before mentioned could be had there in any measure proportioned to the expedition; and we are told, that had they been landed in Pennsylvania, it would have saved £40,000 sterling, and shortened the march by five or six weeks.”

“While General Braddock was at Will’s creek, advice was received from the British Governor of Oswego, that 120 canoes and batteaus, having 600 French on board, had passed over Lake Ontario on the 28th of May, in sight of that place, going towards Niagara and the Ohio.  Meanwhile the General received various and contradictory accounts of the French already in those parts.  Sometimes Fort du Quesne was said to be garrisoned by 1000 men; at other times French deserters assured that only 200 troops were there, and but 500 more at Venango and Presque Isle, on the banks of Lake Erie, distant from Fort du Quesne about ninety miles.  The General being at length provided in necessaries, marched on towards Fort du Quesne; and we are told he wrote back, that he supposed it would be abandoned on his approach.  Major General Braddock and all the stores and provisions, advancing to the Little Meadows, (about twenty miles beyond Fort Cumberland, at Will’s Creek), found it necessary to leave the greatest part of his wagons, &c. at that place, under the command of Colonel Dunbar, with a detachment of 800 men, ordering him to follow as fast as the nature of the service would admit.  The General having, by this means, lessened his lines of march, proceeded with great expedition, his corps then consisting of about 1200 men, and ten pieces of artillery, together with the necessary ammunition, stores, and provisions.  On the 8th of July, he encamped within ten miles of Fort du Quesne.  On the 9th, General Braddock, with the main body of the army, had advanced within a few miles of Fort du Quesne on the Ohio.  Up until this time, they had marched without molestation, or even without seeing an enemy, except two or three small bodies of Indians. The General who seemed to think he would meet with but little opposition, gave an order for all the scouts and rangers forthwith to join the main body of the army.”

“At this time, Lt. Colonel Burton, who commanded the advanced guard, came up to a narrow defile, surrounded with trees and thick underwoods on both sides, and terminated by a very strong pass.  Monachatucha, chief of the Indians in alliance, prayed the General, not to enter this defile till both sides had been thoroughly reconoitred; telling him that it was a most dangerous pass, and that if the enemy intended to attack, he did not know where he could to it with more advantage.  But this advice was rejected.”

“The bushes and underwoods the French lined with Indians and some of their regulars, and posted 300 men at the pass to defend it.  When Lt. Colonel Burton came into the narrow lane, the Indians from behind the bushes galled them greatly; which put them into some confusion.  However, they continued their march; and the General, having intelligence of the interruption, detached one of the majors with 300 men to support the advanced guard.  The enemy still kept firing at our men, killed some, and disordered the whole, insomuch that when they came to the pass, and were opposed by the French, the men scarcely stood one fire, when they threw down their arms loaded and ran away.  The French pursued and the General marching up to support the advanced guards, brought on a general engagement.  But the panic which seized our two regiments was so great that the example, the threats, and prayers of their officers could scarcely prevail with them to look the French in the face.  The first fire quite disconcerted them; and though their officers rallied the greatest part of them, yet it was to no purpose for on the second fire, almost to a man they threw down their arms and ran away; notwithstanding the example of the North Americans who behaved with the greatest resolution and their own officers who were so transported with indignation at the cowardice of their men that they themselves killed several of them running off.  It was at this period that the greatest slaughter of the officers was made; for while they were endeavouring to rally their men, the French had nothing to do but to kill.  The engagement, or rather slaughter continued three hours and a half, when there was a total rout.”

“General Braddock exerted the talents of a commander and a soldier.  He rode from place to place, and by his example endeavoured to inspire the cowardly miscreants with resolution.  He had five horses killed under him, and received seven wounds, the last of which broke his arm, and afterwards passed through his lungs.  He was then carried off insensible, but languished some time before he died.  The retreat was made with more safety than could well be expected from so fatal a beginning, and the remains of the army got safe to the British Fort Cumberland.  On the other hand, it has been alleged that the defeat is owing more to presumption and want of conduct in the officers, than to cowardice in the private men; that a retreat ought to have been resolved upon the moment they found themselves surprised by an ambuscade; and that they were told by the men when they refused to return to the charge, that if they could see their enemies, they would fight them; and they would not waste ammunition against trees and bushes, nor stand exposed to invisible assailants; the French and Indian Rangers, who are excellent marksmen, and in such a situation would inevitably destroy a great number of the best troops in the world.  Nay, some accounts go so far as to assert, that many of the officers, thoroughly dissatisfied with fighting, as it were an invisible enemy, strongly urged the General either to immediately retreat, or to send out irregular parties to clear the bushes sword in hand; but that he esteemed it much below the character of a general officer to engage in any manner contrary to the established rules of war: whence it is suggested, that he himself fell a victim, with many others to that resolute and undaunted resolution by which he was so remarkably distinguished.”

“When the General was first attacked, one such officer, Major Washington, who was defeated in the same manner the year previously, begged the General to let him draw off 300 in each wing to scour the woods: but he refused it and obstinately persisted in the form of field-battle, his men standing shoulder to shoulder; the unhappy consequence of which has been related.  This is, and always very probably will be, the consequence of Old-England officers and soldiers being sent to America.  They have neither the skill nor courage for this method of fighting: for the Indians will kill them as fast as pigeons, and they have no chance either offensive or defensive.”

“The French give the following account of the action near the Ohio, from letters which have been received from Canada.  ‘M. de Contrecoeur, Commandant of Fort du Quesne, having received advice that the English, to the number of 2000 men, were advancing in order to attack the fort, immediately held a council of Mess. de Beaujeu and Dumas, captains of the Marines, and several other officers, in which a resolution was taken to march towards the enemy when they were within three leagues of the fort.  These officers set out accordingly, with 250 Canadians, and 650 Indians; met the English in the open country; and attacked them very courageously, notwithstanding the fire of their cannon and small arms; of which they received two discharges, which killed M. de Beaujeu, de la Perade and de Carqueville, together with fifteen Indians, and four Canadians.  This fire did indeed a little disconcert the Indians, and made them give way; but they rallied immediately upon seeing M. Dumas at their head, who, as senior captain, took the command when M. de Beaujeu dropt.  Led on by this new commander, they and the Canadians rushed furiously upon the enemy, without giving them time to charge again, and with their little hatchets, which they call scull-crackers, made a great slaughter of the English troops.  There remained on the field of battle four brass cannon, eleven pounders, two ditto five pounders and a half, four brass mortars of seven inches and a half diameter, three other of four inches and a quarter in diameter for throwing grenadoes, 157 balls of 11 lb. weight, 17 barrels of powder weighing 100 lb. each, 19,740 cartridges for muskets, a great quantity of matches for the artillery, implements necessary for a siege, muskets and broken wagons, 400 horses, 100 head of cattle, a great many barrels of powder staved, besides baggage and papers, among which was found the plan of Fort du Quesne, and instructions and plan of the expedition.”

Squadron sent to reinforce Vice Admiral Boscawen’s Fleet in North America, May 1755

Sailed 8 May 1755 under the command of Rear Admiral of the Blue Francis Holbourne.

Ship Rate Guns Capt. Name Capt. Surname Notes
Arundell 6 20 William Lloyd
Augusta 4 60 William Saltern Willet
Chichester 3 70 John Brett
Edinburgh 3 70 Thomas Stanhope
Grafton 3 70 Charles Holmes
Terrible 3 74 William Holbourne Flagship of commander, Rear Admiral of the Blue Francis Holbourne
Yarmouth 3 64 Henry Norris

Ships of the British Fleet sent to North America in April 1755

A list of the ships in Vice Admiral of the Blue the Hon. Edward Boscawen’s fleet that sailed to North America in April 1755 in pursuit of the French fleet under the command of M. Bois de la Motte.  The French fleet had been sent due to the intelligence that British land forces under Major General Braddock had been sent earlier in the year.

 

Ship Rate Guns Capt. Name Capt. Surname Notes
Anson 4 60 Robert Mann
Defiance 4 60 Thomas Andrews
Dunkirk 4 60 Hon. Richard Howe
Fougueux 3 64 Richard Spry
Gibraltar 6 20 John Holwell
Hornet Sloop 14 Sampson Salt
Litchfield 4 50 Matthew Barton
Mars 3 64 John Amherst
Monarch 3 74 Abraham North Flagship of second in command, Rear Admiral of the Blue Savage Mostyn
Northumberland 3 70 Alexander, Lord Colvill
Somerset 3 70 Francis Geary
Torbay 3 74 Charles Coleby Flagship of commander, Vice Admiral of the Blue the Hon. Edward Boscawen
Vanguard 3 70 Hon. John Byron

General Chronology of Events Preceding the War from 1748 to 1753.

1748

March 25, 1748: Mutiny bill passed

June 19, 1748: Treaty of Fort Pickawillany, Piqua, Ohio. Signed at Lancaster, Pennsylvania by the Twigtwee Indians, a group of Miami-speaking Indians under the leadership of a sachem named Memeskia, known as “Old Britain” by the English and “La Demoiselle” by the French, this treaty establishes trade between the Twigtwees and the English.

October 7, 1748: Peace of Aix la Chapelle

1749

1749: French explorer Céleron de Blainville claims much of present day Ohio and western Pennsylvania for France.

April 12-13, 1749: Part of Admiral Boscawen’s fleet lost in a storm.  “The Namur of 74 guns and the Pembroke of 60 guns were entirely lost with almost all their people, there being only two midshipmen and 24 men of out those on board the former and 12 from the latter who saved by swimming ashore from the wrecks.  Of the former about 40 with the admiral, Captain Marshall, etc., were happily on shore and on duty, and near 70 sick at the hospital.  That the Namur foundered, and the Pembroke was lost on a place called Calderon Ledge, a little to the southward of Porto Novo.  That he had luckily the day before sent his majesty’s ships Tartar, Apollo, Deal Castle, Swallow and Edgebaston East India ship, to a place called Davacota, to the southward of Porto Novo, but they being at sea, and more to the southward, are all saved, and returned to Fort St. David, though without their masts, and in a most miserable shattered condition, except the Apollo of 40 guns, which ship was not heard of , and he was greatly apprehensive she was likewise lost, with all her people on board, being 350.  The number drowned in the Namur was 520, including the 1st, 2nd, and 4th lieutenants, master, gunner, and two lieutenants of marines; and in the Pembroke, about 330, among whom were the captain, and all the officers, except the captain of marines and purser, who were ashore with leave.”

May 26, 1749: Reduction of the army and navy

July 4, 1749: “Anaverdi Khan defeated and killed by the French and their confederates, in a battle to the south of Arcot.”

September 13, 1749: Céleron lands at Pickawillany to bring the Twigtwees back into the sphere of French trade. His entreaties are rejected and he returns to Detroit on September 20.

October 5, 1749: Commercial treaty with Spain at Buen Retiro; the Spanish Government pay 100,000L.

November 16, 1749: The garrison of Gibraltar and people there had for some time been in great distress for want of provisions, the Spaniards having cut off all communication with that place, under pretence of their being afraid of the plague being brought in there, by reason of their correspondence with Africa ; and though, to remove this pretence, general Bland, the governor, ordered that no vessel from the coast of Barbary should be admitted into that port, yet this prohibition caused no alteration in the measures taken by the Spaniards, who placed guards at all the avenues to that fortress, and imprisoned several persons for attempting to carry in provisions; nor would they allow any vessel to enter their ports, if they heard of their having touched at Gibraltar, having lately stopped four Portuguese vessels at Malaga, and confined their crews in the penthouse, for no other reason but because they just touched at Gibraltar in their passage from any port of the Mediterranean.

1750

1750: The English obtain permission from the Twigtwees to build a stockade at Pickawillany.

March 14, 1750: The Mutiny Bill passes Parliament.

April 5, 1750: “The French, etc. defeated by the English and their confederates under major Lawrence, in a battle 20 miles to the northwest of Pondicherry, April 5, 1750.”

April 26, 1750: “The French in the East Indies made a new Nabob, who in return, made them a present of several towns, and a great extent of country; they got possession of fort St. Thomas, and were grown so powerful that the English settlements, in case of a new war, were in danger of falling in an easy conquest.”

August, 1750: “Mohammed Ali defeated by the French, etc. in a battle to the west of Tira-Vidi, in August, 1750.”

September, 1750: Nova Scotia; “In the beginning of this month, Governor Cornwallis sent to Chignecto, a large force, consisting of 3 or 4 sloops of war, and about 1000 regular forces, to drive out the Indians who had annoyed our settlements ever since our first landing, and who, instigated by the French, burned, last April, the town of Chignecto, on the approach of the troops that were then sent thither from Halifax.  On the arrival of the forces, orders were given to land, which was interrupted by the Indians, mingled with neutral French; who, to the number of 7 or 800, had entrenched themselves behind strong banks and palisades that were cannon-proof, and could not be affected by the fire from the ships: Major Lawrence, therefore, who commanded the expedition, at the head of about 100 chosen men, landed a mile and a half from this entrenchment, where the enemy were ready to receive him with their small arms.  He received their fire (by which he lost only five or six of his men) reserving his own , and marched up with all expedition, before they could load again, bravely mounted their entrenchments, and discharged his fire just at their noses, by which he killed a great number of them, and the rest fled with the greatest precipitation, and passed the river to the other side on the French ground, where a French officer, with about 100 regular troops, stood and was witness of the action.  All our forces then landed, and have taken possession of a fine country, cleared of trees, for 20 or 30 miles with the harvest standing upon the ground.  This action has so effectually strengthened our settlement, and done such injury to the French, and especially to those of Cape Breton, who received most of their supplies of provision from the neutral French settled at Chignecto, that we now are in no pain for our settlement, but with reason expect it to be the most flourishing colony in America.”

September 22, 1750: Ratifications of a treaty of subsidy concluded with the elector of Bavaria were exchanged at Hanover by the British, Austrian. Dutch and Bavarian ministers. The substance of this treaty, which was to last six years, was that the maritime powers pay the Elector an annual subsidy of 40,000/. for which the Elector was to keep in readiness a body of 6000 foot for the service of the maritime powers whenever demanded, provided that they were not employed against the Emperor or empire. As the design of the maritime powers tended to the advantage of the empire, his electoral highness engaged to second the efforts of his Britannic Majesty in the diet, and in the electoral college; which efforts were for electing the archduke king of the Romans. If the Elector should be attacked on account of this treaty, the maritime powers were to assist him, and procure him satisfaction for any damage received.

October 4, 1750: “This day Capt. How, who was the person usually sent to hold conference with the French and Indians, when any was demanded, he understanding their language best, had half an hour’s conversation with a French officer, during which time their dykes were filled with French or Indians, and as he took his leave of the French officer, the treacherous rascals fired a whole volley at him and kill’d him.”

October 5, 1750: Commercial treaty of Madrid between Spain and Great Britain signed.

November 22, 1750: “An order was made at the War Office, that all foreign garrisons should be relieved once in five years.”

December 16, 1750: “Nasr Jing murdered by his own people and his army reduced by the French, etc. at Jingi, Dec. 16, 1750.”

1751

March 20, 1751: Frederick, Prince of Wales, dies

March 22, 1751: The Mutiny Bill passes Parliament.

June 3, 1751: “An order of Admiralty was issued for shipping off from Woolwich, on board the Garland sloop, and a transport, a large quantity of warlike stores for Nova Scotia.”

June 15, 1751: “Was tried at Woolwich, before Sir John Ligonier and the rest of the board of ordnance, one of his Majesty’s six pounder brass cannon, out of which were fired 300 shot in three hours twenty two minutes, after which the gun was searched, and found to be as good as before trial.”

June 19, 1751: “M. de Villiers drove away the English Ohio Company from the banks of that river.”

June 30, 1751: “The English, etc. under Capt. Gingers defeated by the French, etc. at Volcondah, June 30, 1751.”

July 11, 1751: The admiralty gave orders for a general surrey of the navy in all the yards and ports of England, and lord Anson, and Admirals Boscawen and Rowley, were to inspect the same.

July 25, 1751: At a board of Admiralty, where all the lords were present. It was resolved to put in commission two men of war of seventy, two of sixty, and two of fifty guns. Orders were given for fitting out six transports for Nova Scotia, with warlike stores, and all sorts of implements for husbandry.

The Spaniards built a fort on the island of Rattan, which we quitted by the peace, with a view to intercept all ships coming into the bay of Honduras to cut logwood.

August 4, 1751: Mr. Keppel, commander of the British Squadron in the Mediterranean, settled  the differences between this court and Dey of Algiers, by waving the restitution of money and effects taken from on board the prince Frederic packet-boat, on condition, that his Majesty’s packet-boat should never be obliged to carry Algerian passports, but on producing their commissions should be at full liberty to pursue their voyage; and that the British merchants should enjoy the privilege of trading.

August 11, 1751: “The lords of trade and plantations ordered five ships to be got ready to sail for Nova Scotia with two companies of Lee’s Foot (44th Foot), and warlike stores.”

August 11, 1751: Orders were issued for repairing and augmenting the fortifications of Carlisle, and several towns in North Britain.”

August 31, 1751: An order was issued by the king of Spain, at the pressing representations of Mr. Keene, the British minister, to all governors and commanders of ships in the Spanish West Indies, “Not to molest or interrupt the navigation and commerce of the English in the West Indian seas; nor to stop any vessels belonging to that nation, on any pretence whatever, unless actually found carrying on the contraband trade prohibited by treaties.” Commanders of the King’s ships or guarda costas were to be severely punished that presumed to disobey this order.

August 31, 1751: Capture of Arcot. Capt. Clive, with 200 Europeans and 300 sepoys, and five guns, marched from Madras on the 26th of August to attack Arcot, and on the 31st arrived within ten miles of the place, where the enemy’s spies discovered the English continuing then march during a fearful storm, the thunder, lightning, and rain, even more terrific than is usual in India, and seemed to render further advance impracticable; but Clive, aware of the impression that such hardihood would produce on Oriental minds, pushed forward in spite of the elemental strife. Daunted by his boldness, the garrison instantly abandoned the fort, and the English marched through the city to the astonishment of about 100,000 inhabitants, and took possession both of the town and citadel, the latter of which Clive immediately occupied.  September 14, 1751. Successful Sortie from Arcot.  Clive, finding himself invested in Arcot by a powerful and increasing force, and anxious for the safe arrival of two 18-pounders, resolved to attack the besiegers. On the night of the 14th of September he made a successful sortie, the enemy being defeated with considerable loss; and the convoy entered the fort in triumph.

September 19, 1751: Commodore Keppel, commander of his majesty’s squadron in the Mediterranean, signed a treaty of peace and commerce between his majesty and the kingdom of Tripoli, with Robert White, Esq., his majesty’s consul general at Tripoli, and the divan, Kiaja bey, and bashaw of the state and kingdom of Tripoli.

September 24, 1751: Sortie from Arcot. Chunda Saib, having detached 4000 men from Trichinopoly under his son Rajah Saib, and being reinforced by 150 French troops from Pondicherry, assailed Arcot on 23rd September, and, in conjunction with the army already assembled there, proceeded to tighten the chain of investment. But the rajah soon found that he had no common adversary to deal with. At daybreak on the 24th, Clive directed a sortie to be made in two columns, with a view rather to impress the besiegers with the conviction of their own inferiority as soldiers, than for the purpose of driving them from a large open town. Then leading one of the columns, the enterprise was conducted with so much gallantry that the rajah was struck with amazement. However, it cost the garrison dearly: upwards of thirty Europeans fell in the conflict, while not a single gun, though several were at one moment m their possession, was carried off by the daring assailants.

October 19, 1751: Commodore Keppel, commander of his majesty’s squadron in the Mediterranean, signed a treaty of peace and commerce between his majesty and the state of Tunis, with Charles Gordon, Esq., his majesty’s consul general at Tunis, and the lord Ali Pasha, begler bey and supreme commander of the said state of Tunis.

November 9, 1751:  The King reviewed in the Green park, St. James’s, colonel Rich’s regiment of foot, called the King’s Tangier regiment, raised in 1680; there were present the duke of Cumberland, lord Cadogan, general Huske, and Sir Robert Rich. They made a very fine appearance, and after the review marched over Westminster Bridge to their quarters in Kent.

November 14, 1751: Defence of Arcot. Chunda Saib, greatly enraged at the unexpected fall of his capital, sent his son, Rajah Saib, with a force of four thousand men, to expel the English. Being reinforced by one hundred and fifty Europeans from Pondicherry and three thousand men that had collected around the fugitive garrison of Arcot, this formidable force found no difficulty in entering the city. Clive, notwithstanding the great disparity of strength, resolved to dislodge them, and sallied from the fort with his artillery; but the enemy, occupying the houses with their musketry, compelled Clive to retreat with some loss; and on the following day, reinforced by two thousand men from Vellore, they commenced a regular siege of the citadel. Although Clive’s guns were soon disabled, he so retarded the operations of the besiegers, by making frequent sorties, that it was a fortnight before they could effect a breach. Two of considerable extent were at length opened, and Clive pre- pared for their defence, though he had only eighty Europeans and one hundred and twenty sepoys fit for duty; but he had contrived to infuse into this little band a portion of his own indomitable spirit, and they resolved to hold out until the last extremity. Rajah Saib made his assault on the 14th November, the anniversary of the martyrdom of Ali’s family, the festival most reverenced by these Mohammedans. When the assailants advanced, they found themselves exposed to works that commanded the breaches as well as the traverses; and these cross-fires were so well maintained that the enemy were mowed down by entire ranks. They nevertheless made repeated efforts to establish themselves; but being driven back with the loss of 400 men killed and wounded, they abandoned the attempt, and evacuated the town that night, after having maintained the siege for fifty days. On the following morning, Clive being joined by a detachment from Madras, and a body of Mahrattas, commenced an active pursuit, and, having over-taken the enemy, inflicted upon them a severe defeat. He then recovered Conjeveram, which had been garrisoned by the French.

November 25, 1751: Siege and capture of Arcot, India. Robert Clive of England successfully captures this city after defeating an Indian army that includes a French contingent.

December 14, 1751: “The French, etc. are defeated by the English, etc. under capt. Clive, in the plains of the Arnj, Dec. 14, 1751.”

December 25, 1751: “Kanjavaram besieged and taken by the English, etc. under capt. Clive, Dec. 25, 1751.”

1752

February 28, 1752: Surrender of Conjeveram.  The defences of Conjeveram pagoda had been ruined by the English on their capture of that fortress the preceding year; but soon after the forces returned into Madras the French and their Indian allies again occupied their old post. The English under Clive once more appearing before Conjeveram, those of its defenders who did not abandon it, surrendered on 28th Feb., and consented to be taken into British pay.

February 29, 1752: Action at Coverpank, Chunda Saib, the ally of France, recommencing his incursions on the English district, after abandoning Conjeveram, was reinforced by 400 French troops and 2000 sepoys, with artillery. With this force he proceeded to Arcot, and, failing to obtain possession of that place by treachery, they decamped from the pettah. Clive in the meantime was searching for them with 380 Europeans, 2300 sepoys, and 6 field-pieces. On the evening of the 29th of February, while on the road to Arcot, our troops were suddenly fired upon by 9 guns, from a grove of Mango trees, within the distance of 250 yards. The main body immediately found shelter in a dry watercourse, the baggage being sent into the rear, with a gun to protect it; and another detachment, with two guns, dispatched to oppose the cavalry of Chunda Saib, appearing on the plain 2500 strong, the three remaining field-pieces returned the fire of the French. As the moon rose, the French infantry attacked the British in the watercourse. The opposing columns met in this narrow defile, and for two hours were sharply engaged, when Clive, ascertaining that their rear was unprotected, detached a force, under Lieut. Keene, to make a circuit and then assail the enemy in that quarter. Having discovered a way into the grove unperceived by the enemy, and opening his fire when close upon them, the effect was astounding. The French were routed, and abandoned their guns; while some of the fugitives, reaching the watercourse, spread the alarm, and they fled in all directions, the cavalry of their allies, on the plain, following their example. Our loss amounted to 40 Europeans and 30 sepoys killed, and many wounded; whilst that of the enemy was very great.

March 12, 1752: “The French, etc. defeated by the English, etc. under capt. Clive, at Kaviri Fakam, March 12, 1752.”

March, 1752: “Upon Commodore Buckle’s arrival at Guinea with 3 men of war and the Badger sloop or war, he found 3 French men of war on the coast, viz. one of 64, one of 54 and another of 20 guns, who were about building a fort, in order to made a settlement at Anamaboe: Upon which the commodore desired them to desist, the property or right to that place being in the crown of Great Britain, otherwise he should be obliged to compel them by force to abandon their enterprize; and accordingly he made ready for an engagement:  But the French commodore, after a little parleying and consideration, thought fit to sheer off and quit the coast…After these conferences, Commodore Buckle sailed to Cape Coast castle, and there had intelligence, that the captains of the aforesaid French men of war, a little before abandoning Anamaboe, told the natives that they might expect to see them again in ten months at least; for as they had given a valuable consideration (about 15,000l. Sterling) for leave to settle there, they were resolved to carry their point sooner or later.”

March 17-June 3, 1752:  Recently arrived from Great Britain, Major Stringer Lawrence, who at his own request, had the command given to him by Captain Clive, and he set out on the 17th of March from Fort St. David at the head of 400 Europeans and 1000 sepoys, and took under convoy a large quantity of stores and ammunition for Trichinopoly, and proceeded, without molestation, till he came with his forces near Coiladdy on the 28th, when the enemy strove to take advantage of his situation, a strong detachment of French from Chunda Sahib’s army, having thrown up an entrenchment in the way he was to march, cannonaded him from it, and endeavoured to interrupt his passage, which induced Major Lawrence, on the Nabob’s part, to return it, and occasioned the loss of some men on both sides; but the enemy not advancing, he went on the next day for Trichinopoly, about 16 miles distant, and as the road was in sight of the enemy’s camp, they came out with their whole force to oppose him.  Major Lawrence, in order to secure the baggage, marched to meet them; this brought on a cannonading from them, which did him but little damage; but his guns galled the enemy very much, and forced them to retreat into a hollow way; upon this Major Lawrence, drew off his men, and joined the army that night.  In this action the enemy lost above 300 horse, besides Allam Cawn, a man of great interest in the country.  Chunda was soon obliged to raise the siege of Trichinopoly, and collect his forces in Seringham, a neighboring island; and the English forces having possessed themselves of all the strong points quite round it, they so effectually prevented provisions from coming to the enemy, that Chundah’s great army, of above 30,000 men, was dispersed in less than two months; and himself, with the French, and a few black horse sepoys, who held out, were in a miserable condition for want of sustenance.  Upon this the Nabob summoned them to surrender prisoners; and after they had sent Chunda in the night to Monaackjee, they delivered up the island of Seringham on the 3rd of June, on condition that the French officers should have leave to go to Pondicherry on their parole, never to serve against the Nabob or his allies; and the soldiers be sent to Europe by the first opportunity.

April 15, 1752: Attack upon Samiaveram repulsed.  A midnight attack was made by about 50 French troops and 700 sepoys upon Samiaveram, a fortress held by the English under command of Clive. This distinguished officer, then a captain, was for the moment taken by surprise, and wounded; but, soon recovering his presence of mind, by inducing a division of the attacking party to believe that it was surrounded by his troops, it speedily surrendered. The prisoners thus taken, were, however, soon released by the main body of the enemy, who, making a stand in a small pagoda, repulsed an attack upon them. While holding parley with Clive and making terms, an English deserter killed, by a single discharge of his musket, the two sergeants on whom the wounded captain, weak from loss of blood, was leaning. The French, after this treacherous act, immediately surrendered. The sepoys made the best of then- way out of the camp before morning, and, pursued by the British Mahratta horse, were all cut to pieces.

May 9, 1752: Capt. Dalton, commanding two companies of the 1st Madras European regiment, altogether 150 men, with 400 sepoys, 500 Mahratta cavalry, and four field-pieces, attacked a convoy near the fort of Utatoor, which was there waiting to enter Seringapatam, then held by the French and their allies. After a severe action in the attack and defence of a choultry in front of the fort, during which the English lost an officer and several men, Capt. Dalton succeeded in driving the enemy under the walls of Utatoor. At this moment a body of cavalry belonging to the convoy attacked the English in their rear; but the Mahrattas engaged them till a gun was brought to bear, when the whole force of the enemy took refuge in the fort for the night. Before daylight the next morning they retreated towards Volcondah, abandoning the fortress.

May 28, 1752: Action near Volcondah. Chunda Saib, being deserted by a great portion of his army, on the 18th May -withdrew within the pagoda of Seringham, with no more than 2000 horse and 3000 foot, amongst whom 1000 Rajputs undertook to defend the inner temples. The French occupied Jumba Kistnah pagoda, the wall of which was stronger and more defensible; and although the garrison was more numerous than his own force, the place was invested by Major Lawrence on the same day. In the meantime it was of the utmost importance that the convoy driven from Utatoor by Capt. Dalton should be destroyed. It had taken shelter at Volcondah, from which it was again advancing, when Capt. Clive, with 100 Europeans, 1000 sepoys, 1000 horse, with six field-pieces, marched on the evening of 27th May to intercept it, and on the morning of the 28th he arrived at Utatoor. The French had reached within three miles of that place, when, suspecting Clive’s advance, they suddenly fell back. A small body of Mahrattas being sent in pursuit, had the effect of merely amusing the enemy, who, thus retarded, were overtaken by the rest of the horse and the sepoys that had outmatched the Europeans. The enemy now hastily re- treated, harassed by the cavalry, and took up a position under the walls of Volcondah. The greater number of the sepoys had been in the service of the enemy at the siege of Arcot, but, enlisted by Clive,- after the action of Arnee, had been repeatedly in action under that officer, and had acquired great confidence in them- selves. These men, advancing with great rapidity, but in little order, were not checked by a fire under which several fell; but, rushing forward with the bayonet, drove all before them through the barrier, while the cavalry charged upon both flanks, until the enemy, having gained the wall of the pettah, opened fire and checked their further advance. The Europeans now arriving up, forced the barrier, and drove the enemy into the fort. The English were preparing to blow in the gate, when M. D’Anteuil hung out the white flag, and terms were soon settled. The garrison, consisting of 100 Europeans, 400 sepoys, and 340 horse, surrendered; and, besides a quantity of military stores, booty to the amount of 10,000/. was secured.

May 28, 1752: “The Spanish ministers, in answer to Mr. Keene, on the so often repeated complaints of the British subjects, of the depredations of the Guarda Costas [in the West Indies], declared that his Catholic Majesty was far from authorising the Guarda Costas in interrupting a lawful commerce; that he sincerely designed a perfect union and friendship between the two nations, and would cause reparations to be made for any infractions; but that, in satisfying the laws of justice in that respect, it was natural not to lose sight of his own rights, and the protection doe to his subjects.”

June 3, 1752: Surrender of French Troops.  After the successes at Volcondah, Capt. Clive returned, on 30th May, to his camp, with his European prisoners and booty. On the following day, Chunda Saib, on the sacred promise of not being detained a prisoner and being properly used, was induced to deliver himself up to the Tangore general, who likewise gave him an assurance of safe passport to Carical. But Monaackjee broke his oath, seized and put in chains the captive prince. The possession of Chunda Saib created much jealousy and ill-feeling among all the native allies, and was carried to such an extent that the existence of the confederacy was seriously endangered. In order to rid himself of so much anxiety and danger Monaackjee came to the determination of taking the fallen prince’s life. The murderer was a Patan, who found the unfortunate man lying on the ground, unable from sickness to raise himself. The entrance of the assassin into his apartment immediately suggested to his victim the object of his intrusion. Having requested to see Monaackjee, to make a communication of importance, he was stabbed to the heart, and his head, severed from the body, was sent to the Nabob Mohamed Ally at Trichinopoly, who then for the first time saw the face of his rival. By the ignominious and cruel death of this unhappy prince, the war in the south of India was brought to a close. On the 3rd of June, the French force under Law, amounting to 800 Europeans and 2000 sepoys, with all their materiel and baggage, surrendered prisoners of war. Four mortars and thirty-one pieces of cannon, with large quantities of ammunition and stores, also fell into the hands of the British.

June 14, 1752: “Seringham besieged and taken by the English, etc. under major Lawrence, June 15, 1752.”

June 21, 1752: Attack on Pickawillany. Charles Langlade, leading a mixed force of 240 French and Indians, attacks this trading post while the majority of the Twigtee warriors are out hunting. The post surrenders with most of the English traders taken prisoner. Memeskia, for his friendly disposition towards the English, is boiled and eaten.

July 9, 1752: The fort of Vellore, held by the French and sepoys, surrendered to the English force under command of Major Lawrence.

August 4, 1752: “Orders were given for raising a considerable number of recruits to reinforce the garrisons at Gibraltar and Port Mahon.”

August 26, 1752: Commodore Keppel, with his squadron, arrived at Spithead from the Mediterranean, where he had been stationed above three years

August 27, 1752: French defeated near Bahoor.  The French army, under M. de Kerjean, consisting of 400 Europeans, 1500 sepoys, and 500 cavalry, was defeated near Bahoor, with the loss of eight pieces of cannon, by Gen. Lawrence, with 400 Europeans, 1700 sepoys, and 4000 of the Nabob’s troops, whose loss did not exceed 80 in killed and wounded.

September 3, 1752:  The Gregorian or New Stile, according to the late act of Parliament, took place in all his Majesty’s dominions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, this day, from hence called the 14th day of September.

September 24, 1752: Sortie from Fort St. David’s. The Regent of Trichinopoly, on hearing of the victory of Rahoor, sent to Pondicherry for a French reinforcement; and, although professing to be the ally of, and at peace with the English, continued to seize and carry into his camp all supplies entering the city. Capt. Dalton having received instructions from Madras to treat him as an enemy, marched out of fort St. David’s on 23rd September, with a large detachment of Europeans and sepoys. Crossing the river, they entered the enemy’s camp, bayoneted the sentries and advanced pickets, whom they found asleep, and, continuing their advance in double files from the center, penetrated well in among the tents unperceived, and then commenced a fire on both flanks from front to rear. Nothing was heard on all sides but the cries of the wounded, the noise of the affrighted animals that had broken loose, and parties firing upon one another in mistake. A few blue lights being burnt, only served to show the enemy more distinctly, and the firing was continued until every opponent outside the pagoda had disappeared. The enemy, who lined its walls, then commenced firing, and in a short time 20 men were killed and wounded. The sepoys having effectually secured a number of horses and baggage, the troops leisurely retired towards the city before the break of day.

October 31, 1752: Capture of Covelong and Chingleput.  After the victory of Bahoor in August, Major Lawrence recommended the reduction of Chingleput and Covelong. A force of 200 European recruits of the first Madras European regiment and 500 undisciplined sepoys was accordingly sent from Madras, and Clive volunteered to command them. On the 10th September, the party marched against Covelong with four 24-pounders; but before the guns had been placed in battery, the place surrendered. On the next morning a party of the enemy advancing to the relief of the place, the detachment marched out to meet them, and, moving boldly to the attack, delivered their fire with such precision that upwards of one hundred men were knocked over by the first volley. The commanding officer, twenty-five Europeans, and 250 sepoys, with two field-pieces, being captured in a charge that instantly followed the rest threw away their arms and fled towards Chingleput, whither Clive immediately followed them. On his arrival before that place he commenced to batter the walls, and, a breach having been made on 31st October, the fort surrendered. The capture of these two places, effected against a superior force by a handful of recruits and a few undisciplined sepoys, completed the reduction of all the country north of the Paliar river between Sadras and Arcot. The works at Covelong were blown up; but those of Chingleput being repaired, the fort was garrisoned by the British.

December 28, 1752: The court of Spain by the augmentation made in her marine, attempted to aim at the title of a maritime power. It was reckoned that they had, in the several ports of the kingdom, eighteen ships of the line of battle and several frigates in readiness to put to sea, and it was confidently asserted that before the end of the winter the navy consisted of sixty-four  ships of sixty guns and upwards, and twenty-eight frigates. Most of the ships of the line lately built were in a condition to be rigged.

1753

January 2, 1753: Sortie from Trincomalee. Trincomalee, in possession of the English, besieged by French and Mahrattas. On the 2nd of January, 1753, the garrison made a successful sally, and captured 5 guns and 1 pair of colours.

January 3, 1753: Ensign Monachin took Cauranchandypollam from the Mysoreans, India. He soon after sustained a siege therein.

January 4, 1753: Skirmish near Trivadi. The British forces, under Major Lawrence, were encamped with the army of the Nabob Mahomed Ali, whose cause we were espousing under the walls of Trivadi, in the beginning of the year 1753. It was during this period, on the 4th January, according to an entry made in Orme’s unpublished MS. papers, that an officer of the name of Innis attacked and took from the Mahrattas their plunder. Four thousand of these daring native cavalry, under a chief called Morai Row, were at this time in the service of the French, and were engaged in harassing our troops and cutting off supplies. They occasionally found this a dangerous duty to perform, and, as in the present instance, had to disgorge their spoil.

January 5, 1753: Repulse of Mahrattas.  A British force, on march from Trivadi to Trivendapa, repulsed an attack of Mahrattas. As we have before mentioned, 4000 of these bold Asiatics were at this time acting with the French in the Avar which arose out of the disputed Musned of Arcot. The rival armies of the English and French Companies and their allies were en- camped within a short distance of each other, the former under the walls of Trivadi. Major Lawrence, to protect a convoy of provisions from Fort St. David, had dispatched a strong escort, and the Mahrattas, according to their custom, made a desperate charge upon the British; but the steady fire of our infantry was too much for these wild horse-men, and they were repulsed with severe loss. In this and similar attacks, at the beginning of the year 1753, they had altogether 600 men killed or wounded.

January 9, 1753: Action near Trivadi. In the lingering war between the English and French East India Companies, with their native allies, the contention was who should put a nabob on the Musned of Arcot. The French had surrendered one army to the British in the preceding year, and one pretender to the nabob-ship, supported by them, had been put to death. They had now another army in the field and another pretender to fight for Rajah Saib, the son of their late protégé. Commanded by Dupieix, they were encamped at a little distance from the village of Trivadi, and then held by the English, on whom they directed their Mahratta allies. Morai Row and a strong body of these wild horsemen, supported by two companies of Topasses, native infantry in his pay, with several guns, advanced and opened a fire upon Trivadi. Major Lawrence and the Nabob Mahomed Ali on the instant got their troops under arms, and the grenadiers and sepoys attacking the enemy, captured the artillery before a second round could be fired. The Mahrattas, however, retired along the plain in good order, Major Lawrence following them up with his infantry and field-pieces. At length, not wishing to be drawn far from his camp, the major commenced his return, when he was suddenly attacked by the enemy. It was a moment of imminent peril to the little band of English and sepoys surrounded by Mahrattas, but the infantry steadily reserved their fire till the horsemen were close to the muzzles of their pieces. The artillery also opened upon them, and Morai Row was repulsed, with the loss of about 100 men, and, repairing to the French camp, he bitterly reproached Dupieix for not coming to his aid.

January 28, 1753: Attack on Convoy repulsed. On 28th January, a body of Mahratta horsemen made some desperate charges upon the British troops proceeding from Fort St. David’s to the army; but so vigorously were they repulsed, that on the return of the convoy with the supplies they had not the temerity to dispute the way.

March 8, 1753: The Mutiny Bill passes Parliament.

March-June, 1753: Off Lochaber and the Western Isles: Several of the King’s ships have been cruising since March last.  The government having had information that arms, ammunition, etc. were landed in those parts from France, and several of the rebel chiefs who escaped and fled to foreign countries were returned to the Highlands and Isles, to spirit up their friends, and enlist men for the service of the Pretender; one of their captains was shot at Inverlochy, having refused to surrender, and wounding one of the King’s officers, three others surrendered.  The 28th of May, Captain Ferguson, of his Majesty’s the Porcupine, took four in the Isle of Skye, and hath them prisoners on board; there are several companies of the army in different parts, in quest of others, most of whom are skulking in the islands in order to get off, lest they should meet their deserved fate at Tyburn.

April, 1753: “By way of New York, there is further intelligence: That an army of French and Indians, to the number of 1200, besides batteaumen, were seen by some of the Six Nation Indians, the middle of April last, in their march, well equipped for war to Cardaracqui, a French fort (and usual place of rendezvous) situate near the east end of Lake Ontario, among whom were a great -many officers, and young gentlemen.”

June, 22, 1753: “Charlestown, South Carolina; Advices have been received from the governors of Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York that the French have marched 7000 Indians, and 1000 regular forces, with all kinds of military stores requisite in a siege, from Canada, in order to dislodge the English from Logtown, a settlement, upon the Ohio, a branch of the Mississippi, lately made by the government of Virginia, and that they have sent a detachment against the Catawbas, a nation firmly attached to the English, with a view to intimidate all the other nations in our alliance.  Yesterday our militia brought in six northern Indians, who said they were of the Shawano nation, on the Ohio; but contradicted each other as to their business here.  They had French guns with rifled barrels, and were well armed, with cords of black wampum, for tying prisoners.”

July 18, 1753: “From Fort Augustus we are informed that Archibald M’Donald of Barrisdale, was apprehended in a wood on the side of Lochhorn in Moydart, by a party of General Howard’s regiment, and in company with him –M’Donald younger of Morar, Ronald M’Donald, commonly known by the name of capt. of Barrisdale’s guard, with four others of his gang.  As they were all in arms, and had secured themselves in a hut in the wood, they would have no doubt have made resistance, had they not been quite surrounded by the party, in the morning, before they suspected any danger.”

August 4, 1753: “An experiment was made at Woolwich, before the principal officers of the ordnance, on a short brass gun, a six pounder, cast by Mr. William Bowen, which was fired 300 times in 3 hours 7 minutes and 3 quarters, charged with a ball of the above weight, and a pound and a quarter of powder, after which the gun was thoroughly searched, and found as perfect as before she was fired.”

August 15, 1753: “Lymington, Hants, An experiment was made on the seashore near Soley, by Mr. Lannoy de Villers, on a twelve pounder cannon, fired on a cast iron carriage of his invention, when he fired several shot with seven pounds and six pounds of service powder, before several persons of distinction, who were highly satisfied with the performance.  These carriages are made of a particular sort of cast iron, which is of so tough a body that they can be filed and chiseled like wrought iron, and are not heavier than wooden carriages, but much more durable, especially in the East and West Indies, where the worm destroys all wood carriages.  It is made upon such a principle that it requires not more than two to work it, whereas other gun carriages require a greater number. – [Perhaps this invention is somewhat like that of Col. Cook, in Georgia and Carolina, where, by virtue of an iron spindle, one man may traverse a carriage with a 24 pounder on it.]”

September 23, 1753: Action of the Golden Rock. — Major Lawrence, having determined to attack the enemy in their strong entrenchments, — extending 500 yards from the Sugar-loaf Rock towards the rock on their left, — the better to mask his intentions, he marched, on the 20th of September, out into the plain, and cannonaded their camp, with an 18-pounder. Early on the morning of the 21st, he formed his column of attack. The 12th Madras regiment, 600 strong, was in three divisions; the sepoys followed in the rear to the right and left of the divisions; the Nabob and Monagre, with their cavalry, brought up the rear, and the artillery were divided on each flank of the Madras regiment. The leading division being ordered to carry the Golden Rock, approached within a few yards before they were perceived. The enemy were so much surprised that they even forgot to fire their two pieces of cannon, and the infantry fired their muskets at random. The rock was carried in an instant, its defenders flying with precipitation towards the French camp: little time was spent in dismounting the guns and securing the post. The leading division then attacked the enemy’s camp, which they entered by the unfinished works on its left. The enemy had by this time drawn up to receive them, and as the day dawned the British advanced to where the French troops were formed in line, having on their left a large body of sepoys. Both these corps were speedily driven back; and the English sepoys having pushed on outside the entrenched works to the right of the French regiment, carried the Sugar-loaf hill in gallant style. In the meantime the Madras regiment having formed in line attacked the French battalion with such vigour, that after a short resistance they fled in great disorder, having sustained a loss of 100 men killed, and 100 wounded and prisoners. The enemy were defeated at all points, and abandoned their camp, leaving eleven pieces of artillery, with ammunition and baggage.

Autumn of 1753: George Washington delivers a letter to the French commander at Fort LeBeouf, Captain Jacques Legardeur de St. Pierre, from Virginia’s Lieutenant Governor Dinwiddie demanding that the French abandon territory allegedly belonging to the English. The French commander wines and dines Washington and sends him on his way after forwarding Dinwiddie’s demand to his superiors. Dinwiddie’s demand is declined politely.

October, 1753: “Extract from a Letter from Virginia, Feb. 9 [1754].  In October last a messenger was sent to enquire, whether the French had built forts at the back of our settlements, who is returned with the following account:  That there have been 1500 regular forces sent from France; that they have built three forts upon the Ohio, on some lands of which several gentlemen in London and Virginia have a grant from the king.  The French expected to be repulsed, but, finding no opposition, they intend to keep possession.  They used our messenger very well, and gave him a guard of 200 men to escort him through the Indians.  It is expected that a number of forces will be raised, as we have a sufficient quantity of gunpowder from London, with 30 pieces of cannon.  If the French are not soon drove off, and the forts built by the English on the Mississippi, they will have such strongholds, that it will never be in our power to expel them.”

November 23, 1753: “Ireland; On November 23, Arthur Jones Neville, Esq.; late surveyor and engineer general of Ireland, and member for the county of Wexford, was expelled from the House of Commons, for misemploying the money allotted for building barracks, and erecting many of them in such a manner, as to endanger the health of the troops:  On this account prodigious rejoicings have appeared throughout the nation.”

November 23, 1753: French attack on Trichinopoly Defeated.  In the early part of November, the French at Seringham were reinforced by 300 Europeans, 200 Topasses, and 1000 sepoys, with some artillery. During the night of the 27th, the whole French force crossed over from the island and attacked Trichinopoly; and whilst the attempt was made on Dalton’s battery, the Mysoreans and Mahrattas were distributed around the city to distract the attention of the garrison. Six hundred of the French battalion were to escalade at this point, and 200 more, with a body of sepoys, formed the reserve, who were to follow the advance when they got over the walls. At three on the morning of the 28th November, they passed the ditch at a place nearly dry, planted their ladders, and all entered the battery without arousing the guard of fifty sepoys and two European gunners, who were at once dispatched; but some of the enemy stumbling into a pit, their muskets went off, and gave the alarm. The French immediately turned the guns against the place, and two parties moved forward, one to force open the small gate leading into the fort, the other to escalade. By this time the garrison were at their posts; and Lieutenant Harrison, being second in command, assumed the chief control, his commandant, Captain Kilpatrick, from his late wounds, being confined to his bed. The escaladers had so far succeeded as to plant their ladders against the inner wall, and began to ascend; and the officer commanding, preceded by his drummer, were the first to reach the top. The latter was shot and thrust over the wall, whilst the officer, after receiving two wounds, was pulled inside. The artillery officer, guided by the frequent flashes of fire, pointed his guns so effectually as to shatter the ladders and kill a number of men. The enemy now attempted to retreat, and, all their ladders being broken, had to leap down on the hard rock a drop of upwards of twenty-eight feet. About one hundred made the attempt, but not one escaped serious injury. The rest, in despair, turned, and recommenced a fire upon the works. Being at length over- powered by the well-directed fire from the fortress, they concealed themselves behind the battery; but when the day dawned, they threw down their arms and surrendered. Three hundred and sixty prisoners were secured, and about 100 killed and wounded. Trichinopoly was thus saved from the greatest risk it had ever been exposed to during the war, and mainly attributable to the courage and intelligence of Lieut. Harrison. This promising young officer died a short time after performing this gallant exploit.